Effectiveness of common cold prevention and treatment remedies compared (evidence-based)

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User friendly summary[edit]

An appropriate schedule seems to be:

Preventing "catching a cold"[edit]

  • 180-mg allicin daily ("Allicin is an organosulfur compound obtained from garlic").
  • Optional, low quality evidence: 1-billion CFU probiotic daily
  • If you are an extreme athlete or exposed to extreme cold: 1 to 3-g of Vitamin C daily
  • Optional, smaller effect size: 400-mg echinacea purpurea daily

Getting over a cold more rapidly[edit]

Within 24 h of first symptoms:

  • 75 to 100-mg zinc daily, via zinc acetate lozenges.
  • If you have an extremely sore throat and can get prescription remedies: Corticosteroids (Hydrocortisone, Dexamethasone, Prednisolone)
  • Optional, low quality evidence: 1.5-ml Pelargonium sidoides (Umcka) 3x daily.
  • Optional, no consistently demonstrated effect when supplemented only after symptoms appear: 1-g+ Vitamin C daily

Reducing sickness severity[edit]

  • Something with Pseudoephedrine (decongestant) and either an antihistamine (e.g. Diphenhydramine) OR analgesic (e.g. ibuprofen, acetaminophen).
  • If you have a persistent cough: 1.5-ml Pelargonium sidoides (Umcka) 3x daily.
  • If you have headache: Ibuprofen or acetaminophen. Go with ibuprofen if you are sneezing.
  • Optional, low quality evidence: Nasal saline spray, "2 to 3 sprays in each nostril at least 4 times daily"

Feel free to eliminate remedies with lower quality evidence depending on your desired evidence threshold.

Preventing the common cold ("how to avoid catching a cold")[edit]

Remedy Recommendation Suggested formulation and how to use to reduce the odds of catching a cold Evidence quality[1] References
Garlic Recommended for prevention 180-mg allicin per day. Consistent daily use regardless of cold symptoms. Sadly only one formulation is available ($23.93 for 90, 27c/day). Moderate "The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366)."

Garlic for the common cold

Probiotics Recommended for prevention >1 billion CFU per day. Consistent daily use regardless of cold symptoms. NOW Probiotic-10 is dairy/gluten free and shelf-stable ($14.61 for 50, 29c/day). Low or very low "Probiotics were found to be better than placebo in reducing the number of participants experiencing episodes of acute URTI by about 47%."

Probiotics for the common cold

Zinc Consider for prevention ~40-mg zinc acetate per day via lozenges. Consistent daily use regardless of cold symptoms. Unfortunately there are very few brands of zinc acetate. This is the only one I know of with available 1-day shipping online ($11.10 for 30, $1.48/day). Low "The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of developing a cold (IRR 0.64; 95% CI 0.47 to 0.88) (P = 0.006), school absence (P = 0.0003) and prescription of antibiotics (P < 0.00001) was lower in the zinc group."

Zinc for the common cold

Vitamin C Recommended for prevention if you are exposed to extreme physical stress (e.g. you are a marathon runner, skier) or exposed to extreme cold Consistent daily use regardless of cold symptoms. Larger doses appear to be more effective (beware of diarrhea at higher doses). Any brand. Moderate or strong "Regular ingestion of vitamin C had no effect on common cold incidence in the ordinary population, based on 29 trial comparisons involving 11,306 participants."

"In five trials with 598 participants exposed to short periods of extreme physical stress (including marathon runners and skiers) vitamin C halved the common cold risk." Elsewhere they also categorize this group as including those with short-term exposure to intense (presumably) cold.

Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold

Echinacea Consider use for prevention (minor preventive effect) Take echinacea purpurea daily. Cheap brand and correct formulation: Nature's Bounty ($3.98 for 100). Low "In general, trials investigating Echinacea for preventing colds did not show statistically significant reductions in illness occurrence. However, nearly all prevention trials pointed in the direction of small preventive effects."

"None of the 12 prevention comparisons reporting the number of patients with at least one cold episode found a statistically significant difference. However a post hoc pooling of their results, suggests a relative risk reduction of 10% to 20%."

Echinacea for the common cold

Mold removal from buildings Consider for prevention (minor effect, high cost) No guidance. Very low to moderate "We found moderate to very low‐quality evidence that repairing mould‐damaged houses and offices decreases asthma‐related symptoms and respiratory infections compared to no intervention in adults. There is very low‐quality evidence that although repairing schools did not significantly change respiratory symptoms in staff, pupils' visits to physicians due to a common cold were less frequent after remediation of the school."

Mold removal from buildings for preventing the common cold

Corticosteroids (Hydrocortisone, Dexamethasone, Prednisolone) No data on preventing colds - - Corticosteroids for sore throat
Nasal saline irrigation (spray) No data on preventing colds - - Nasal saline irrigation for the common cold
Pelargonium sidoides (Umcka) No data on preventing colds - - Pelargonium sidoides (Umcka) for the common cold
Antibiotics No data on preventing colds - - Antibiotics for the common cold

Antibiotics for sore throats

Chinese medicinal herbs No data on preventing colds - - Do Chinese medicinal herbs work to treat the common cold?

Chinese medicinal herbs for sore throat

Steam (heated, humidified air) No data on preventing colds - - Heated, humidified air or steam for the common cold
Ipratropium bromide nasal spray No data on preventing colds - - Ipratropium bromide nasal spray for the common cold
Oral antihistamine‐decongestant‐analgesic (brand names e.g. Advil Cold & Sinus, see this for ingredient names) No data on preventing colds - - Oral antihistamine‐decongestant‐analgesic combinations for the common cold
Antihistamines (e.g. Benadryl) No data on preventing colds - - Antihistamines (e.g. Benadryl) for the common cold
Increased fluid intake No data on preventing colds - - Fluid intake for the common cold or flu
Capsaicin No data on preventing colds - - Capsaicin for the common cold
Nasal decongestants (Sudafed, pseudoephedrine) No data on preventing colds - - Nasal decongestants (Sudafed, pseudoephedrine) for the common cold
Acetaminophen (Tylenol, Panadol) No data on preventing colds - - Acetaminophen (Tylenol, Panadol) for the common cold
Ibuprofen (Advil), Naproxen (Aleve) and Aspirin No data on preventing colds - - Ibuprofen (Advil), Naproxen (Aleve) and Aspirin for the common cold
Nasal steroids (corticosteroids) No data on preventing colds - - Nasal steroids (corticosteroids) for the common cold
Vaccines Not worth it for prevention (no effect) - - "No statistically significant difference in common cold incidence was found: there were 13 events in 1139 participants in the vaccines group and 14 events in 1168 participants in the placebo group; risk ratio (RR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45 to 2.02, P = 0.90)."

Vaccines for preventing the common cold

Reducing the duration of the common cold ("getting rid of a cold and recovering faster")[edit]

Remedy Recommendation Price, suggested brands, and how to use remedy to reduce cold duration Evidence quality References
Corticosteroids (Hydrocortisone, Dexamethasone, Prednisolone) Strongly consider use for faster recovery from sore throats/tonsillitis (clinically significant reduction) No guidance. Prescription only. Moderate or high "In addition to any effect of antibiotics and analgesia, corticosteroids increased the likelihood of complete resolution of pain at 24 hours by more than three times (risk ratio (RR) 3.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0 to 5.1, P < 0.001, I2 statistic 44%) and at 48 hours by 1.7 times."

Corticosteroids for sore throat

Zinc Recommended for faster recovery Within 24 h of first symptoms. 75 to 100-mg zinc acetate per day via lozenges. Unfortunately there are very few brands of zinc acetate. This is the only one I know of with available 1-day shipping online ($11.10 for 30, $1.48/day). Moderate "Intake of zinc is associated with a significant reduction in the duration (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.56 to -0.38) (P = 0.001), and severity of common cold symptoms (SMD -0.39; 95% CI -0.77 to -0.02) (P = 0.04)."

Zinc for the common cold

Nasal saline irrigation (spray) Consider use for faster recovery (non clinically significant reduction) Used when symptoms begin. "Normal saline, instructed to use 2 to 3 sprays in each nostril at least 4 times daily" Low "There was a reduction in the outcome of time to resolution of symptoms, which was reported in two trials on adult participants, but the difference was not clinically significant."

Nasal saline irrigation for the common cold

Pelargonium sidoides (Umcka) Consider use of liquid form for faster recovery (low quality evidence of shorter duration) Used when symptoms begin. Use liquid form, tablets are less effective. 1.5-ml 3x daily. Low "Failure to recover by day 7 (complete resolution of all symptoms) - liquid preparation", "RR 0.66 (0.52 to 0.83)", low GRADE evidence

Pelargonium sidoides (Umcka) for the common cold

Garlic Consider use for faster recovery (minor reduction in duration, no data on statistical significance) 180-mg allicin per day. Consistent daily use regardless of cold symptoms. Recommended brand ($23.93 for 90, 27c/day). Moderate "When participants experienced a cold, the length of illness was similar in both groups (4.63 [garlic] versus 5.63 days [placebo])."

Garlic for the common cold

Vitamin C Consider regular supplementation for faster recovery (Minor reduction in duration if supplemented regularly and before symptoms. Inconsistent effectiveness if only used after cold symptoms begin.) Consistent daily use regardless of cold symptoms. Larger doses appear to be more effective (beware of diarrhea at higher doses). Moderate or strong "In adults the duration of colds was reduced by 8% (3% to 12%) and in children by 14% (7% to 21%). In children, 1 to 2 g/day vitamin C shortened colds by 18%."

Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold

Probiotics Consider regular supplementation for faster recovery (moderate reduction in duration with consistent daily use) Consistent daily use regardless of cold symptoms. Low or very low "Probiotics were found to be better than placebo in reducing ... the duration of an episode of acute URTI by about 1.89 days."

Probiotics for the common cold

Antibiotics Consider use for faster recovery from sore throats/tonsillitis (minor reduction in duration)

Not worth it for speeding recovery of common cold (no effect)

- - "Participants receiving antibiotics for the common cold did no better in terms of lack of cure or persistence of symptoms than those on placebo (risk ratio (RR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 1.51, (random‐effects)), based on a pooled analysis of six trials with a total of 1047 participants."

Antibiotics for the common cold

"Antibiotics shorten the duration of symptoms by about 16 hours overall."

Antibiotics for sore throats

Chinese medicinal herbs Consider use for faster recovery from sore throats/tonsillitis (some formulations seemed to be effective)

Likely not worth it for speeding recovery of common cold (no consistent benefit)

- - "In seven trials, six herbal preparations were found to be more effective at enhancing recovery than the control preparations. In the other 10 studies, seven herbal preparations were not shown to be significantly different from the control."

Do Chinese medicinal herbs work to treat the common cold?

"Based on the existing evidence in this review, some Chinese herbal medicines for treating sore throat appeared efficacious. However, due to the lack of high quality clinical trials, the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for treating sore throat is controversial and questionable."

Chinese medicinal herbs for sore throat

Echinacea Likely not worth it for speeding recovery (no consistent benefit) - - "Of the six treatment trials reporting data on the duration of colds, only two showed a significant effect of Echinacea over placebo."

Echinacea for the common cold

Steam (heated, humidified air) No data on speeding recovery - - Heated, humidified air or steam for the common cold
Ipratropium bromide nasal spray No data on speeding recovery - - Ipratropium bromide nasal spray for the common cold
Oral antihistamine‐decongestant‐analgesic (brand names e.g. Advil Cold & Sinus, see this for ingredient names) No data on speeding recovery - - Oral antihistamine‐decongestant‐analgesic combinations for the common cold
Vaccines No data on speeding recovery - - Vaccines for preventing the common cold
Antihistamines (e.g. Benadryl) No data on speeding recovery - - Antihistamines (e.g. Benadryl) for the common cold
Increased fluid intake No data on speeding recovery - - Fluid intake for the common cold or flu
Capsaicin No data on speeding recovery - - Capsaicin for the common cold
Mold removal from buildings No data on speeding recovery - - Mold removal from buildings for preventing the common cold
Nasal decongestants (Sudafed, pseudoephedrine) No data on speeding recovery - - Nasal decongestants (Sudafed, pseudoephedrine) for the common cold
Acetaminophen (Tylenol, Panadol) No data on speeding recovery - - Acetaminophen (Tylenol, Panadol) for the common cold
Ibuprofen (Advil), Naproxen (Aleve) and Aspirin Not worth it for speeding recovery (lack of effectiveness) - - "In a pooled analysis, NSAIDs did not significantly reduce the total symptom score (SMD ‐0.40, 95% CI ‐1.03 to 0.24, three studies, random‐effects model), or duration of colds (MD ‐0.23, 95% CI ‐1.75 to 1.29, two studies, random‐effects model)."

Ibuprofen (Advil), Naproxen (Aleve) and Aspirin for the common cold

Nasal steroids (corticosteroids) Not worth it for speeding recovery (no effect) - - "In the two placebo‐controlled trials, no benefit of intranasal corticosteroids was demonstrated for duration or severity of symptoms."

Nasal steroids (corticosteroids) for the common cold

Reducing sickness severity and symptoms of the common cold[edit]

Remedy Recommendation Price and how to use remedy to reduce cold symptoms Evidence quality References
Pelargonium sidoides (Umcka) Recommended for symptom reduction if you have a persistent cough (bronchitis), no data supporting other cold symptoms Used when symptoms begin. Use liquid form, tablets are less effective. 1.5-ml 3x daily. Most cost effective formulation: 4-oz grape syrup for $12.74. Low or very low "Three trials (746 patients, low quality of evidence) of efficacy in acute bronchitis in adults showed effectiveness for most outcomes in the liquid preparation but not for tablets." No data on other symptoms.

Pelargonium sidoides (Umcka) for the common cold

Antibiotics Effective for tonsillitis symptom reduction

Not worth it for reducing symptoms of common cold (no effect)

No guidance. Prescription only. Moderate "Participants receiving antibiotics for the common cold did no better in terms of lack of cure or persistence of symptoms than those on placebo (risk ratio (RR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 1.51, (random‐effects)), based on a pooled analysis of six trials with a total of 1047 participants."

Antibiotics for the common cold

"Throat soreness and fever were reduced by about half by using antibiotics. The greatest difference was seen at day three."

Antibiotics for sore throats

Oral antihistamine‐decongestant‐analgesic (brand names e.g. Advil Cold & Sinus, see this for ingredient names) Recommended for reducing symptoms Antihistamine-decongestant, e.g. Equate: Suphedrine PE Sinus & Allergy. Moderate "The combination of antihistamine‐decongestant is the most effective combination but many people experience adverse effects such as drowsiness, dry mouth, insomnia and dizziness. There is no evidence for a beneficial effect in young children."

Oral antihistamine‐decongestant‐analgesic combinations for the common cold

Ibuprofen (Advil), Naproxen (Aleve) and Aspirin Recommended for headache and other pain, somewhat recommended for sneezing (very minor effect)

Not worth it for sore throat (lack of benefit)

No guidance. Moderate "For respiratory symptoms, cough did not improve (SMD ‐0.05, 95% CI ‐0.66 to 0.56, two studies, random‐effects model) but the sneezing score significantly improved (SMD ‐0.44, 95% CI ‐0.75 to ‐0.12, two studies, random‐effects model). For outcomes related to the analgesic effects of NSAIDs (headache, ear pain, and muscle and joint pain) the treatment produced significant benefits."

"The mean throat irritation score in the intervention groups was 0.01 standard deviations lower."

Ibuprofen (Advil), Naproxen (Aleve) and Aspirin for the common cold

Zinc Somewhat recommended for reduced symptoms Within 24 h of first symptoms. 75 to 100-mg zinc acetate per day via lozenges. Unfortunately there are very few brands of zinc acetate. This is the only one I know of with available 1-day shipping online ($11.10 for 30, $1.48/day). Moderate "Intake of zinc is associated with a significant reduction in the duration (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.56 to -0.38) (P = 0.001), and severity of common cold symptoms (SMD -0.39; 95% CI -0.77 to -0.02) (P = 0.04)."

Zinc for the common cold

Acetaminophen (Tylenol, Panadol) Somewhat recommended for headache and achiness

Consider it for stuffy nose

Not worth it for sore throat, malaise, sneezing, cough (no effect)

Follow directions on packet insert. Pay special attention to daily maximum dosage and recommendations regarding maximum alcohol intake, as there are >40,000 emergency department visits from acetaminophen overdoses each year in the US. Low to moderate "Two studies showed that headache and achiness improved more in the acetaminophen group than in the placebo group, while one study showed no difference between the acetaminophen and placebo group." "Acetaminophen may help relieve nasal obstruction and rhinorrhoea but does not appear to improve some other cold symptoms (including sore throat, malaise, sneezing and cough)."

Acetaminophen (Tylenol, Panadol) for the common cold

Ipratropium bromide nasal spray Somewhat recommended for runny nose

Not worth it for nasal stuffiness (no effect)

Two sprays of a 0.06% solution in buffered saline solution in each nostril 3x daily. Moderate "This review has found that IB may improve the runny nose but has no effect on nasal stuffiness."

Ipratropium bromide nasal spray for the common cold

Capsaicin Somewhat recommended for runny nose "The best knowledge that we have on capsaicin treatment supports giving it five times in one day, and to use doses of at least 4 micrograms in each puff." Low to moderate "Individually, the studies reported that the overall function of the nose in patients with non‐allergic rhinitis improved when treated with capsaicin compared to placebo. Capsaicin also seems to work better than another common type of nasal medication, budesonide (a steroid)."

Capsaicin for the common cold

Nasal decongestants (Sudafed, pseudoephedrine) Consider using for nasal congestion "We could not determine if there was a difference in effects between decongestant tablets and nasal sprays." Low "Subjective measures of congestion were significantly better for the treatment group compared with placebo approximately three hours after the last dose (SMD 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07 to 0.92; P = 0.02; GRADE: low‐quality evidence). However, the SMD of 0.49 only indicates a small clinical effect."

Nasal decongestants (Sudafed, pseudoephedrine) for the common cold

Vitamin C Consider regular supplementation for symptom reduction (Minor reduction in symptom severity if supplemented regularly and before symptoms. Inconsistent effectiveness if only used after cold symptoms begin.) Consistent daily use regardless of cold symptoms. Larger doses appear to be more effective (beware of diarrhea at higher doses). Moderate or strong "The severity of colds was also reduced by regular vitamin C administration." Minor decrease. 0.12 standard deviations lower.

"Trials of high doses of vitamin C administered therapeutically, starting after the onset of symptoms, showed no consistent effect on the duration or severity of common cold symptoms."

Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold

Chinese medicinal herbs Consider use for tonsillitis symptom reduction (some formulations seemed to be effective)

Likely not worth it for reducing symptoms (most studies show no benefit)

See best formulations. Very low to moderate "The Pan 2000 study showed a statistically significant improvement in the severity of symptoms when using the intervention Xiaoer Reganning, compared to vitamin C (Yinqiao Chongji), for children with the common cold (RR 1.69, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.35). In this trial, the definition of ’improvement’ included both shortening of the duration of symptoms and lessening of the severity of symptoms. The other 14 trials and two combined trials showed no differences between the two groups on lessening of severity of symptoms."

Do Chinese medicinal herbs work to treat the common cold?

"Six Chinese herbal medicines may facilitate the improvement of symptoms and increase the rate of recovery."

Chinese medicinal herbs for sore throat

Echinacea Likely not worth it for symptom reduction (no consistent benefit) - - "Data on severity scores after two to four days (Analysis 2.4) and five to 10 days of treatment (Analysis 2.5) were reported in seven trials (eight comparisons) and eight trials (11 comparisons), respectively. Significant differences were found in two comparisons after two to four days and four comparisons after five to 10 days."

Echinacea for the common cold

Steam (heated, humidified air) Likely not worth it for symptom reduction (no consistent benefit) - - "This review found that in some studies inhaling steam helped symptoms; in others it did not."

Heated, humidified air or steam for the common cold

Antihistamines (e.g. Benadryl) Likely not worth it for reducing symptoms (limited effectiveness) - - "In adults, there is a short‐term beneficial effect on severity of overall symptoms on the first or second day of treatment (45% felt better versus 38% with placebo), but there was no difference between antihistamines and placebo in the mid [three to four days] to long term [six to 10 days]. The effect of sedating antihistamines on rhinorrhoea and sneezing is too small to be relevant to the patient and involves a risk of side effects such as sedation (9% versus 5.2% with placebo)."

Antihistamines (e.g. Benadryl) for the common cold

Mold removal from buildings Likely not worth it for reducing symptoms - - "One CBA study showed very low‐quality evidence that after repairing a mould‐damaged office building, asthma‐related and other respiratory symptoms decreased. In another CBA study, there was no difference in symptoms between full or partial repair of houses."

Mold removal from buildings for preventing the common cold

Corticosteroids (Hydrocortisone, Dexamethasone, Prednisolone) Not worth it for reducing symptoms (no data separate of duration) - - Corticosteroids for sore throat
Probiotics No data on reducing symptoms - - Probiotics for the common cold
Garlic No data on reducing symptoms - - Garlic for the common cold
Increased fluid intake No data on reducing symptoms - - Fluid intake for the common cold or flu
Vaccines No data on reducing symptoms - - Vaccines for preventing the common cold
Nasal saline irrigation (spray) Not worth it for reducing symptoms (no effect) - - "Most results showed no difference between nasal saline treatment and control."

Nasal saline irrigation for the common cold

Nasal steroids (corticosteroids) Not worth it for reducing symptoms (no effect) - - "In the two placebo‐controlled trials, no benefit of intranasal corticosteroids was demonstrated for duration or severity of symptoms."

Nasal steroids (corticosteroids) for the common cold

FAQ[edit]

How frequently do most people get colds?[edit]

Children: 6-10 per year. Adults: 2-4 per year, mostly during winter. [2]

How can you tell if you have a cold or the flu?[edit]

"The flu typically comes on quick and strong as opposed to a nagging cold. You may be feeling fine during the morning but can feel horrible, with a fever and aches, in the afternoon," Weston said.

Another difference between the flu and the common cold is the type of aches and pains.

"Aches and pains are prevalent in both conditions, but with a cold, the aches are mild and generally associated with congestion. The flu can present with deep muscle pains in your large muscles, including your legs and back," Weston said.[3]

When are colds most contagious?[edit]

"People are most contagious for the first 2 to 3 days of a cold." "A cold is most often not contagious after the first week." [4]

"Depending on which strain is contracted, a person can become contagious roughly a day after infection, even though symptoms will not appear, on average, until another day or two later." "When obvious signs of sickness have disappeared, a person can still infect others for up to three days."[5]

How long do symptoms last in the common cold?[edit]

"Cold symptoms usually start about 2 or 3 days after you came in contact with the virus, although it could take up to a week. Symptoms mostly affect the nose." [4]

How do common colds spread?[edit]

"In fact, for reasons that remain unclear, a remarkable series of well-designed experiments has failed to support a unifying hypothesis for rhinoviral contagion (Table 2). Gwaltney and his coworkers99,104 showed that viruses are transmitted by contaminated objects or from the hands of an infected person, with disease resulting from autoinoculation into the nose or eye.98 Other experiments have supported the importance of direct spread and opposed a role for aerosol by showing that in the absence of physical contact, infection was not consistently transferred during animated conversation in poorly ventilated, shared dormitory housing.105 In contrast, however, the infection was not transmitted when infected and uninfected adults who were separated by a glass panel exchanged playing cards that eventually became saturated with nasal secretions,105 whereas under conditions in which only aerosol could have been responsible,106 the infection was transmitted to 10 of 18 subjects. It seems reasonable to conclude that direct contact and aerosolization both contribute to contagion by rhinovirus (Table 2), probably with the former predominating.101,107,108" [6]

How can I reduce the odds I spread my cold to someone else?[edit]

Wash your hands often. This is the best way to stop the spread of germs.

To wash your hands correctly:

Rub soap onto wet hands for 20 seconds. Make sure to get under your fingernails. Dry your hands with a clean paper towel and turn faucet off with paper towel. You can also use alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Use a dime size amount and rub all over your hands until they are dry.

To further prevent colds:

  • Stay home when you are sick.
  • Cough or sneeze into a tissue or into the crease of your elbow and not into the air.
  • Keep your vaccinations up to date.[7]

References[edit]

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC428525/
  2. Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG). Common colds: Overview - PubMed health - National Library of Medicine - PubMed health. April 2014. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0072727/#i2642.prevalence. Accessed January 31, 2017.
  3. Preidt R. Is it a cold or the flu? Here’s how to tell: MedlinePlus health news. MedlinePlus. https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162821.html. Accessed January 31, 2017.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Common cold. MedlinePlus. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm. Accessed January 31, 2017.
  5. O’connor A. The claim: A cold is contagious only before symptoms emerge. Health. March 15, 2005. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/03/15/health/the-claim-a-cold-is-contagious-only-before-symptoms-emerge.html. Accessed January 31, 2017.
  6. Musher DM. How Contagious Are Common Respiratory Tract Infections? New England Journal of Medicine. 2003;348(13):1256-1266. doi:10.1056/nejmra021771.
  7. Common cold - how to treat at home. MedlinePlus. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000466.htm. Accessed January 31, 2017.